Peer-Reviewed Publications


Michelini S, Sarajlic M, Duschl A, Horejs-Hoeck J. 2018. IL-1β induces expression of costimulatory molecules and cytokines but not immune feedback regulators in dendritic cells. Hum Immunol. S0198-8859(18)30175-7. doi: 10.1016/j.humimm.2018.06.002.

Sauer E, Gauer B, Nunes do Nascimento S, Nardi J, Göethel G, Souza da Costa N, Correia D, Matte U, Charao MMF, Arbo MD, Duschl A, Moro AM, Garcia, SC. 2018. The role of B7 costimulation on benzene immunotoxicity and its potential association with cancer risk. Environ Res. 5:166:91-99. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.05.029.

Boraschi B, Italiani P, Palomba R, Decuzzi P, Duschl A, Fadeel B, Moghimi SM. 2017. Nanoparticles and innate immunity: modes of interaction that lead to toxicity, anomalous activation, interference with defensive activity. Seminars in Immunology. 2017 Aug 28. pii: S1044-5323(17)30044-1. doi: 10.1016/j.smim.2017.08.013

Boraschi D, Italiani P, Palomba R, Decuzzi P, Duschl A, Fadeel B, Moghimi SM. 2017. Nanoparticles and innate immunity: new perspectives on host defence. Semin Immunol.34:33-51. doi: 10.1016/j.smim.2017.08.013

Li Y, Shi S, Radauer-Preiml I, Andosch A, Casals E, Lütz-Meindl U, Cobaleda M, Lin Z, Jaberi-Douraki M, Italiani P, Horejs-Hoeck J, Himly M, Monteiro-Riviere N, Duschl A, Puntes V, Boraschi D.  2017. Bacterial endotoxin (LPS) binds to the surface of gold nanoparticles, interferes with protein corona formation and induces human monocyte inflammatory activation. Nanotoxicology 11:1157-75. DOI 10.1080/17435390.2017.1401142

Márquez A, Kocsis K, Zickler G, Bourret G, Feinle A, Hüsing N, Himly M, Duschl A, Berger T, Diwald O. 2017. Enzyme Adsorption-induced Activity Changes:  A Quantitative Study on TiO2 Model Agglomerates. J Nanobiotechnol, 2017 Jul 21;15(1):55.

Frijns E, Verstraelen S, Stoehr LC, Van Laer J, Jacobs A, Peters J, Tirez K, Boyles MSP, Geppert M, Madl P, Nelissen I, Duschl A, Himly M. A Novel Exposure System Termed NAVETTA for In Vitro Laminar Flow Electrodeposition of Nanoaerosol and Evaluation of Immune Effects in Human Lung Reporter Cells. Environ Sci Technol. 2017 May 2;51(9):5259-5269. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.7b00493.

Himly M, Mills-Goodlet R, Geppert M, Duschl A. Nanomaterials in the Context of Type 2 Immune Responses - Fears and Potentials. Front Immunol. 2017 Apr 25;8:471. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00471. REVIEW

Reinmuth-Selzle K, Kampf CJ, Lucas K, Lang-Yona N, Fröhlich-Nowoisky J, Shiraiwa M, Lai S, Liu F, Shen F, Sgarbanti R, Weber B, Weller MG, Bellinghausen I, Saloga J, Duschl A, Schuppan D, Pöschl U. Air Pollution and Climate Change Effects on the Development of Allergies in the Anthropocene: Abundance, Properties, and Modification of Allergens and Adjuvants. Environ Sci Technol. 2017 Apr 18;51(8): 4119–4141. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b04908.

Schwarz H, Gornicec J, Neuper T, Parigiani MA, Wallner M, Duschl A, Horejs-Hoeck J. Biological Activity of Masked Endotoxin. Sci Rep. 2017 Mar 20;7:44750. doi: 10.1038/srep44750.

da Luz CM, Boyles MS, Falagan-Lotsch P, Pereira MR, Tutumi HR, de Oliveira Santos E, Martins NB, Himly M, Sommer A, Foissner I, Duschl A, Granjeiro JM, Leite PE. Poly-lactic acid nanoparticles (PLA-NP) promote physiological modifications in lung epithelial cells and are internalized by clathrin-coated pits and lipid rafts. J Nanobiotechnology. 2017 Jan 31;15(1):11. doi: 10.1186/s12951-016-0238-1.

Márquez A, Berger T, Feinle A, Hüsing N, Himly M, Duschl A, Diwald O. Bovine Serum Albumin Adsorption on TiO2 Colloids: The Effect of Particle Agglomeration and Surface Composition. Langmuir. 2017 Feb 28. doi: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b03785.


Piret JP, Bondarenko OM, Boyles MS, Himly M, Ribeiro AR, Benetti F, Smal C, Lima B, Potthoff A, Simion M, Dumortier E, Leite PE, Balottin LB, Granjeiro JM, Ivask A, Kahru A, Radauer-Preiml I, Tischler U, Duschl A, Saout C, Anguissola S, Haase A, Jacobs A, Nelissen I, Misra SK, Toussaint O. Pan-European inter-laboratory studies on a panel of in vitro cytotoxicity and pro-inflammation assays for nanoparticles. Arch Toxicol. 2016 Dec 10.

Boyles MSP, Ranninger C, Reischl R, Rurik M, Tessadri R, Kohlbacher O, Duschl A, Huber CG. Copper oxide nanoparticle toxicity profiling using untargeted metabolomics. Particle and Fibre Toxicology. 13:49 DOI 10.1186/s12989-016-0160-6

Radauer-Preiml I, Andosch A, Hawranek T, Luetz-Meindl U, Wiederstein M, Horejs-Hoeck J, Himly M, Boyles MSP, Duschl A. Nanoparticle–allergen interactions mediate human allergic responses: protein corona characterization and cellular responses. Particle and Fibre Toxicology. 13:3 DOI 10.1186/s12989-016-0113-0

Himly M, Grotz B, Sageder M, Geppert M, Duschl A. 2016. Immune frailty and nanomaterials: The case of allergies. Current Bionanotechnology 2:20-28. DOI: 10.2174/2213529402666160601124654 REVIEW

Malsch I, Rutkowska-Zbik D, Himly M, Kiparissides C, Kammona O, Szafran B, Lynch I, Ntow F, Qeipo Rodriguez P, Talesnik M, Rosenberg D, Duschl A. 2016. Current Trends in Nanoeducation for Industry and Society. Current Bionanotechnology, Volume 2 (E-pub ahead of print). DOI: 10.2174/2213529402666160601112106 REVIEW

Boraschi D, Moghimi SM, Duschl A. 2016. Editorial: Interaction Between the Immune System and Nanomaterials: Safety and Medical Exploitation. Current Bionanotechnology 2:3-5. DOI: 10.2174/221352940201160718174904 REVIEW

Boraschi D, Fadeel B, Duschl A. 2016. Nanoparticles and the immune system. In: “Adverse effects of engineered nanoparticles”. B.Fadeel, A.Pietroiusti, A. Shvedova, eds. Academic Press. 2nd edition, P. 169-184. ISBN 9780123869401 REVIEW

Malsch I, Rutkowska-Zbik D, Duschl A, Himly M, Zadrozny T, Kiparissides C, Kammona O, Talesnik M, Rothschild Y, Rosenberg D, Szafran B, Queipo Rodriguez P, Lynch I. 2016. Nanotechnology for industry and society, in: Nanotechnology: Risk Governance, Risk Assurance and Risk Transfer. Springer series Innovation, Technology and Knowledge Management, Murphy F, McAlea, Mullins M, eds. Springer, ISBN 331932392X, 9783319323923 REVIEW


Boyles MSP, Kristl T, Andosch A, Zimmermann M, Tran N, Casals E, Himly M, Puntes V, Huber C, Lütz-Meindl U, Duschl A. Chitosan functionalisation of gold nanoparticles encourages particle uptake and induces cytotoxicity and pro-inflammatory conditions in phagocytic cells, as well as enhancing particle interactions with serum components. J. Nanobiotechnology 13:84 doi: 10.1186/s12951-015-0146-9.

Izak-Nau E, Huk A, Reidy B, Uggerud H, Vadset M, Eiden S, Voetz M, Duschl A, Dušinska M, Lynch I. Impact of Storage Conditions and Storage Time on Silver Nanoparticles’ Physico-chemical Properties and Implications for their Biological Effects. RSC Advances, 5:84172-84185. DOI: 10.1039/C5RA10187E

Stoehr LC, Endes C, Radauer-Preiml I, Boyles MS, Casals E, Balog S, Pesch M, Petri-Fink A, Rothen-Rutishauser B, Himly M, Clift MJ, Duschl A. Assessment of a panel of interleukin-8 reporter lung epithelial cell lines to monitor the pro-inflammatory response following zinc oxide nanoparticle exposure under different cell culture conditions. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2015 Sep 29;12(1):29. doi: 10.1186/s12989-015-0104-6.

Maier E, Mittermeir M, Ess S, Neuper T, Schmiedlechner A, Duschl A, Horejs-Hoeck J. Prerequisites for Functional Interleukin 31 Signaling and Its Feedback Regulation by Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 (SOCS3). J Biol Chem. 2015 Oct 9;290(41):24747-59. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M115.661306.

Huk A, Izak-Nau E, El Yamani N, Uggerud H, Vadset M, Zasonska B, Duschl A, Dusinska M. Impact of nanosilver on various DNA lesions and HPRT gene mutations - effects of charge and surface coating. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2015 Jul 24;12:25. doi: 10.1186/s12989-015-0100-x.

Saptarshi SR, Duschl A, Lopata AL. Biological reactivity of zinc oxide nanoparticles with mammalian test systems: an overview. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2015;10(13):2075-92. doi: 10.2217/nnm.15.44. REVIEW

Stoehr LC, Madl P, Boyles MS, Zauner R, Wimmer M, Wiegand H, Andosch A, Kasper G, Pesch M, Lütz-Meindl U, Himly M, Duschl A. Enhanced Deposition by Electrostatic Field-Assistance Aggravating Diesel Exhaust Aerosol Toxicity for Human Lung Cells. Environ Sci Technol. 2015 Jun 29. 

Diesner SC, Schultz C, Ackaert C, Oostingh GJ, Ondracek A, Stremnitzer C, Singer J, Heiden D, Roth-Walter F, Fazekas J, Assmann VE, Jensen-Jarolim E, Stutz H, Duschl A, Untersmayr E. Nitration of β-Lactoglobulin but Not of Ovomucoid Enhances Anaphylactic Responses in Food Allergic Mice. PLoS One. 2015 May 8;10(5):e0126279. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0126279.

Aiche S, Sachsenberg T, Kenar E, Walzer M, Wiswedel B, Kristl T, Boyles M, Duschl A, Huber CG, Berthold MR, Reinert K, Kohlbacher O. Workflows for automated downstream data analysis and visualization in large-scale computational mass spectrometry. Proteomics. 2015 Apr;15(8):1443-7. doi: 10.1002/pmic.201400391.

Moro AM, Brucker N, Charão MF, Sauer E, Freitas F, Durgante J, Bubols G, Campanharo S, Linden R, Souza AP, Bonorino C, Moresco R, Pilger D, Gioda A, Farsky S, Duschl A, Garcia SC. Early hematological and immunological alterations in gasoline station attendants exposed to benzene. Environ Res. 2015 Feb;137:349-56. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2014.11.003.

Duschl A. 2015. Nanomedicine. In: "Immune Rebalancing: The Future of Immunosuppression". G. Penton-Rol, D. Boraschi, eds. Elsevier - Academic Press. ISBN: 978-0-12-803302-9 DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-803302-9.00012-9 REVIEW

Schlinkert P, Casals E, Boyles M, Tischler U, Hornig E, Tran N, Zhao J, Himly M, Riediker M, Oostingh G, Puntes V, Duschl A. The oxidative potential of differently charged silver and gold nanoparticles on three human lung epithelial cell types. J Nanobiotechnology. 2015 Jan 16;13(1):1.


Schwarz H, Schmittner M, Duschl A, Horejs-Hoeck J. Residual endotoxin contaminations in recombinant proteins are sufficient to activate human CD1c+ dendritic cells. PLoS One. 2014 Dec 5;9(12):e113840. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113840.

Huk A, Izak-Nau E, Reidy B, Boyles M, Duschl A, Lynch I, Dusinska M. Is the toxic potential of nanosilver dependent on its size? Part. Fibre Toxicol. 2014 Dec 3;11(1):65. doi: 10.1186/s12989-014-0065-1.

Ackaert C, Kofler S, Horejs-Hoeck J, Zulehner N, Asam C, von Grafenstein S, Fuchs JE, Briza P, Liedl KR, Bohle B, Ferreira F, Brandstetter H, Oostingh GJ, Duschl A. The impact of nitration on the structure and immunogenicity of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101. PLoS One. 2014 Aug 15;9(8):e104520. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104520.

Maier E, Werner D, Duschl A, Bohle B, Horejs-Hoeck J. Human Th2 but not Th9 cells release IL-31 in a STAT6/NF-κB-dependent way. J Immunol. 2014 Jul 15;193(2):645-54. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1301836.

Boyles MSP, Stoehr LC, Schlinkert P, Himly M, Duschl A. 2014. The Significance and Insignificance of Carbon Nanotube-Induced Inflammation. Fibers 2(1), 45-74; DOI: 10.3390/fib2010045 REVIEW

Reinmuth-Selzle K, Ackaert C, Kampf CJ, Samonig M, Shiraiwa M, Kofler S, Yang H, Gadermaier G, Brandstetter H, Huber CG, Duschl A, Oostingh GJ, Pöschl U. Nitration of the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101: efficiency and site-selectivity of liquid and gaseous nitrating agents. J Proteome Res. 2014 Feb 11. 

Kofler S, Ackaert C, Samonig M, Asam C, Briza P, Horejs-Hoeck J, Cabrele C, Ferreira F, Duschl A, Huber C, Brandstetter H. Stabilization of the dimeric birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 impacts its immunological properties. J Biol Chem. 2014 Jan 3;289(1):540-51. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.518795. Epub 2013 Nov 19.




Vanoni S, Nofziger C, Dossena S, Soyal SM, Patsch W, Plevani P, Duschl A, Paulmichl M. The Human Pendrin Promoter Contains two N4 GAS Motifs with Different Functional Relevance. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2013;32(7):238-48. doi: 10.1159/000356642. Epub 2013 Dec 18.

Izak-Nau E, Kenesei K, Murali K, Voetz M, Eiden S, Puntes VF, Duschl A, Madarász E. Interaction of differently functionalized fluorescent silica nanoparticles with neural stem- and tissue-type cells. Nanotoxicology. 2013 Dec 18. [Epub ahead of print]

Selzle K, Ackaert C, Kampf CJ, Kunert AT, Duschl A, Oostingh GJ, Pöschl U. Determination of nitration degrees for the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013 Nov;405(27):8945-9. doi: 10.1007/s00216-013-7324-0. Epub 2013 Sep 14.

Izak-Nau E, Voetz M, Eiden S, Duschl A, Puntes VF. Altered characteristics of silica nanoparticles in bovine and human serum: the importance of nanomaterial characterization prior to its toxicological evaluation. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2013 Nov 11;10(1):56. doi: 10.1186/1743-8977-10-56.

Saptarshi SR, Duschl A, Lopata AL. Interaction of nanoparticles with proteins: relation to bio-reactivity of the nanoparticle. J Nanobiotechnology. 2013 Jul 19;11:26. doi: 10.1186/1477-3155-11-26. REVIEW.

Oostingh GJ, Papaioannou E, Chasapidis L, Akritidis T, Konstandopoulos AG, Duschl A. Development of an on-line exposure system to determine freshly produced diesel engine emission-induced cellular effects. Toxicol In Vitro. 2013 Sep;27(6):1746-52. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2013.04.016. Epub 2013 May 14.

Schwarz H, Posselt G, Wurm P, Ulbing M, Duschl A, Horejs-Hoeck J. TLR8 and NOD signaling synergistically induce the production of IL-1β and IL-23 in monocyte-derived DCs and enhance the expression of the feedback inhibitor SOCS2. Immunobiology. 2013 Apr;218(4):533-42. doi: 10.1016/j.imbio.2012.06.007. 


Maier E, Duschl A, Horejs-Hoeck J. STAT6-dependent and -independent mechanisms in Th2 polarization. Eur J Immunol. 2012 Oct 8. doi: 10.1002/eji.201242433 REVIEW

Horejs-Hoeck J, Schwarz H, Lamprecht S, Maier E, Hainzl S, Schmittner M, Posselt G, Stoecklinger A, Hawranek T, Duschl A. Dendritic Cells Activated by IFN-γ/STAT1 Express IL-31 Receptor and Release Proinflammatory Mediators upon IL-31 Treatment. J Immunol. 2012 Jun 1;188(11):5319-26. Epub 2012 Apr 25.

Karle AC, Oostingh GJ, Mutschlechner S, Ferreira F, Lackner P, Bohle B, Fischer GF, Vogt AB, Duschl A. Nitration of the Pollen Allergen Bet v 1.0101 Enhances the Presentation of Bet v 1-Derived Peptides by HLA-DR on Human Dendritic Cells. PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e31483.

Cho WS, Duffin R, Poland CA, Duschl A, Oostingh GJ, Macnee W, Bradley M, Megson IL, Donaldson K. Differential pro-inflammatory effects of metal oxide nanoparticles and their soluble ions in vitro and in vivo; zinc and copper nanoparticles, but not their ions, recruit eosinophils to the lungs. Nanotoxicology. 2012 Feb;6:22-35. Epub 2011 Feb 18.

Boraschi D, Duschl A. Nanoparticles and the immune system. In: "Adverse effects of engineered nanoparticles". 2012. B.Fadeel, A.Pietroiusti, A. Shvedova, eds. Academic Press. P. 169-184. REVIEW


Stoehr LC, Gonzalez E, Stampfl A, Casals E, Duschl A, Puntes V, Oostingh GJ. Shape matters: effects of silver nanospheres and wires on human alveolar epithelial cells. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2011 Dec 30;8(1):36.

Casals E, Pfaller T, Duschl A, Oostingh GJ, Puntes VF. Hardening of the nanoparticle-protein corona in metal (Au, Ag) and oxide (Fe3O4, CoO, and CeO2) nanoparticles. Small. 2011 Dec 16;7(24):3479-86. doi: 10.1002/smll.201101511. Epub 2011 Nov 7.

Boraschi D, Lucchesi D, Hainzl S, Leitner M, Maier E, Mangelberger D, Oostingh GJ, Pfaller T, Pixner C, Posselt G, Italiani P, Nold MF, Nold-Petry CA, Bufler P, Dinarello CA. IL-37: a new anti-inflammatory cytokine of the IL-1 family. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2011 Sep;22(3):127-47. REVIEW

Kohl Y, Oostingh GJ, Sossalla A, Duschl A, von Briesen H, Thielecke H. Biocompatible micro-sized cell culture chamber for the detection of nanoparticle-induced IL8 promoter activity on a small cell population. Nanoscale Res Lett. 2011 Aug 23;6:505.

Posselt G, Schwarz H, Duschl A, Horejs-Hoeck J. Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 2 Is a Feedback Inhibitor of TLR-Induced Activation in Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells. J Immunol. 2011 Aug 15.

Hankin S, Boraschi D, Duschl A, Lehr C-M, Lichtenbeld H. Towards Nanotechnology Regulation - Publish the Unpublishable. NanoToday, advance online publication doi:10.1016/j.nantod.2011.03.002. REVIEW

Oostingh GJ, Casals E, Italiani P, Colognato R, Stritzinger R, Ponti J, Pfaller T, Kohl Y, Ooms D, Favilli F, Leppens H, Lucchesi D, Rossi F, Nelissen I, Thielecke H, Puntes VF, Duschl A, Boraschi D. Problems and challenges in the development and validation of human cell-based assays to determine nanoparticle-induced immunomodulatory effects. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2011 Feb 9;8(1):8.

Maier E, Hebenstreit D, Posselt G, Hammerl P, Duschl A, Horejs-Hoeck J. Inhibition of Suppressive T Cell Factor 1 (TCF-1) Isoforms in Naive CD4+ T Cells Is Mediated by IL-4/STAT6 Signaling. J Biol Chem. 2011 Jan 14;286(2):919-28.

Boraschi D, Oostingh G, Casals E, Italiani P, Nelissen I, Puntes V, Duschl A. Nano-immunosafety: issues in assay validation. J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 2011 304 012077 REVIEW


Untersmayr E, Diesner SC, Oostingh GJ, Selzle K, Pfaller T, Schultz C, Zhang Y, Krishnamurthy D, Starkl P, Knittelfelder R, Förster-Waldl E, Pollak A, Scheiner O, Pöschl U, Jensen-Jarolim E, Duschl A. Nitration of the egg-allergen ovalbumin enhances protein allergenicity but reduces the risk for oral sensitization in a murine model of food allergy. PLoS One. 2010 Dec 2;5(12):e14210.

Holmstrup, M., Bindesbøl, A-M., Oostingh, G. J., Duschl, A., Scheil, V., Köhler, H-R., Loureiro S., Soares, A. M. V. M., Ferreira, A. L. G., Kienle, C., Gerhardt, A., Laskowski, R., Kramarz, P. E., Bayley, M., Svendsen, C., Spurgeon, D. J.
Interactions between effects of environmental chemicals and natural stressors: A review. Sci. Total Environ. 408, 3746-3762. REVIEW

Casals, E., Pfaller, T., Duschl, A., Oostingh, G. J., Puntes V.
Time evolution of the nanoparticle protein corona. ACS Nano 4, 3623-3632.

Smith, K. E. C., Oostingh, G. J., Mayer, P.
Passive dosing for producing defined and constant exposure of hydrophobic organic compounds during in vitro toxicity tests. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23, 55-65.

Pfaller, T., Colognato, R., Nelissen, I., Favilli, F., Casals, E., Ooms, D., Leppens, H., Ponti, J., Stritzinger, R., Puntes, V., Boraschi, D., Duschl, A., Oostingh, G. J.
The suitability of different cellular in vitro immunotoxicity and genotoxicity methods for the analysis of nanoparticle-induced events. Nanotoxicology 4, 52-72.


Oostingh GJ, Wichmann G, Schmittner M, Lehmann I,
Duschl A. (2009) The cytotoxic effects of the organophosphates chlorpyrifos and diazinon differ from their immunomodulating effects. Journal of Immunotoxicology, 6(2): 136–145

Herzog E, Byrne HJ, Davoren M, Casey A, Duschl A, Oostingh GJ.
(2009) Dispersion medium modulates oxidative stress response of human lung epithelial cells upon exposure to carbon nanomaterial samples.  Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. May 1;236(3):276-81. 

Pfaller T, Puntes V, Casals E, Duschl A and Oostingh GJ.
(2009) In vitro investigation of immunomodulatory effects caused by engineered inorganic nanoparticles – the impact of experimental design and cell choice. Nanotoxicology 3(1):46-59

Herzog E, Byrne HJ, Casey A, Davoren M, Lenz AG, Maier KL, Duschl A, Oostingh GJ.
(2009) SWCNT suppress inflammatory mediator responses in human lung epithelium in vitro.  Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. Feb 1;234(3):378-90.


Röder-Stolinski C, Fischäder G, Oostingh GJ, Feltens R, Kohse F, von Bergen M, Mörbt N, Eder K, Duschl A, Lehmann I. (2008) Styrene induces an inflammatory response in human lung epithelial cells via oxidative stress and NF-kappaB activation. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. Sep 1;231(2):241-7.

Hebenstreit D, Giaisi M, Treiber MK, Zhang XB, Mi HF, Horejs-Hoeck J, Andersen KG, Krammer PH, Duschl A, Li-Weber M.
(2008) LEF-1 negatively controls interleukin-4 expression through a proximal promoter regulatory element.  J Biol Chem. Aug 15;283(33):22490-7.

Luft P, Oostingh GJ, Gruijthuijsen Y, Horejs-Hoeck J, Lehmann I, Duschl A. 
(2008) Patulin influences the expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines by activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and T cells through depletion of intracellular glutathione. Environ Toxicol. Feb;23(1):84-95.

Oostingh GJ, Schmittner M, Ehart AK, Tischler U, Duschl A.
(2008) A high-throughput screening method based on stably transformed human cells was used to determine the immunotoxic effects of fluoranthene and other PAHs. In: Toxicology in Vitro, 22(5), 1301-1310

Röder-Stolinski C, Fischäder G, Oostingh GJ, Eder K, Duschl A, Lehmann I.
(2008) Chlorobenzene induces the NF-kappa B and p38 MAP kinase pathways in lung epithelial cells. In: Inhalation Toxicology, 20(9), 813-820

2001 - 2007

Maier E, Wirnsberger G, Horejs-Hoeck J, Duschl A and Hebenstreit D. (2007) Identification of a distal tandem STAT6 element within the CCL17 locus. Human Immunology 2007Dec 68(12): 986-992

Kusnezow W, Banzon V, Schröder C, Schaal R, Hoheisel JD, Rüffer S, Luft P, Duschl A, Syagailo YV. (2007) Antibody microarray-based profiling of complex specimens: systematic evalluation of labeling strategies. Proteomics 7:1786-99.

Riemer AB, Untersmayr E, Knittelfelder R, Duschl A, Pehamberger H, Zielinski CC, Scheiner O, Jensen-Jarolim E. (2007) Active induction of tumor-specific IgE antibodies by oral mimotope vaccination. Cancer Research, 67:3406-3411.

Horejs-Hoeck J, Wirnsberger G, Hebenstreit D, Posselt G, Duschl A. (2007) Interleukin-4 regulates the expression of Thymus-and activation-reculated chemokine (TARC)/CCL17 by a Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 6 (STAT6)-dependent mechanism. In Celluar and Molecular Targets in Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Allergy Clin. Immunol. Int: J. World Allergy Org., Suppl. 2, S. Holgate, G. Marone, J. Ring eds., Hogrefe & Huber, Cambridge MA, pp 308-310.

Gruijthuijsen YK, Grieshuber I, Stöcklinger A, Tischler U, Fehrenbach T, Weller MG, Vogel L, Vieths S, Pöschl U, Duschl A. (2007) Nitration of allergens: Another pollution effect to worry about. In Celluar and Molecular Targets in Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Allergy Clin. Immunol. Int: J. World Allergy Org., Suppl. 2, S. Holgate, G. Marone, J. Ring eds., Hogrefe & Huber, Cambridge MA, pp 84-86. REVIEW

Duschl A. (2007) Nanoparticle effects on the immune system. In "Nanotoxicology", Y.L. Zhao and H.S. Nalwa, eds., American Scientific Publishers, 143-166. REVIEW

Gruijthuijsen YK, Grieshuber I, Stöcklinger A, Tischler U, Fehrenbach T, Weller MG, Vogel L,  Vieths S, Pöschl U, Duschl A. (2006) Nitration enhances the allergic potential of proteins. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 141(3):265-75.

Wirnsberger G, Hebenstreit D, Posselt G, Horejs-Hoeck J, Duschl A. (2006) IL-4 induces expression of TARC/CCL17 via two STAT6 binding sites. Eur J Immunol. 36(7):1882-91.

Hebenstreit D, Wirnsberger G, Horejs-Hoeck J, Duschl A. (2006) Signaling mechanisms, interaction partners, and target genes of STAT6. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. Jun;17(3):173-88. REVIEW

Hebenstreit D, Luft P, Schmiedlechner A, Duschl A, Horejs-Hoeck J. (2005) SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 inhibit IL-4 and IL-13 induced activation of Eotaxin-3/CCL26 gene expression in HEK293 cells.  Mol Immunol. 2005 Feb;42(3):295-303.

Hebenstreit D, Horejs-Hoeck J, Duschl A. (2005) Jak-STAT dependent gene regulation by cytokine signaling. Drug News Perspect. May;18(4):243-9. REVIEW

Hebenstreit D, Luft P, Schmiedlechner A, Horejs-Hoeck J, Duschl A. 2005. Interleukin-4/13-induced by activation of STAT6 is regulated by SOCS. In From Genes to Phenotypes. The Basis of Future Allergy Management. Allergy Clin. Immunol. Int: J. World Allergy Org., Suppl. 2, H. Lowenstein, J. Bienenstock, J. Ring eds. Hogrefe & Huber, Cambridge MA, pp. 4-6. REVIEW

Nelde A, Hebenstreit D, Schmidlechner A, Horejs-Hoeck J., Duschl A. 2004. Inhibition of IL-4Ra or STAT6 as experimental strategies for the therapy of atopic diseases. Allergy Frontiers and Futures. Proc. 24h Symp. Coll. Int. Allergol. J.B. Bienenstock, J. Ring, A.G.T. Togias (Eds.), Hogrefe & Huber, Cambridge MA, pp. 317-319. REVIEW

Hebenstreit D, Luft P, Schmiedlechner A, Regl G, Frischauf A-M, Aberger F, Duschl A, Horejs-Hoeck J. (2003) IL-4 and IL-13 induce SOCS-1 gene expression in A549 cells by three functional STAT6 binding motifs located upstream of the transcription initiation site. J. Immunol. 171, 5901-5907

Bömmel H, Haake M, Luft P, Horejs-Hoeck J, Hein H, Bartels J, Schauer C, Pöschl U, Kracht M, Duschl A. (2003) The diesel exhaust component pyrene induces expression of IL-8 but not of eotaxin. Int. Immunopharm. 3, 1371-1379

Hahn C, Teufel M, Herz U, Renz H, Erb KJ, Wohlleben G, Bröcker EB, Duschl A, Sebald W, Grunewald SM. (2003) Inhibition of the IL-4/IL-13 receptor system prevents allergic sensitization without affecting established allergy in a mouse model for allergic asthma. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 111: 1361-9.

Duschl A. (2003) IL-13 in allergy and asthma. In: Interleukin-13, F. Brombacher Ed., Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, pp. 79-92. REVIEW

Horejs-Höck J, Duschl A. (2003) Die Rolle von Zytokinen bei Allergien und Asthma. Bundesgesundheitsblatt 46, 211-216. REVIEW

Schnyder B, Schnyder-Candrian, S, Panski A, Bömmel H, Heim M, Duschl A, Moser R. (2002) Phytochemical inhibition of interleukin-4-activated Stat6 and expression of VCAM-1. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 292, 841-847

Müller T, Zhang JL, Sebald W, Duschl A. (2002) Structure, binding and antagonists in the IL-4/IL-13 receptor system. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1592, 237-250. REVIEW

Stolzenberger S, Haake M, Duschl A. (2001) Specific inhibition of interleukin-4 dependent Stat6 activation by an intracellularly delivered peptide. Eur. J. Biochem. 268, 4809-14

Grunewald S, Teufel M, Erb K, Nelde A, Mohrs M, Brombacher F, Bröcker EB, Sebald W, Duschl A. (2001) Upon prolonged allergen exposure IL-4 and IL-4Ralpha knockout mice produce specific IgE leading to anaphylaxis. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 125, 322-328

Nelde A, Teufel M, Hahn C, Duschl A, Sebald W, Bröcker EB, Grunewald SM. (2001) The impact of route and frequency of antigen exposure on IgE response in allergy. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 124, 124, 461-469

1992 - 2000

Bömmel H, Li-Weber M, Serfling E, Duschl A. (2000) The environmental pollutant Pyrene enhances the production of Interleukin-4. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 105, 796-802

Duschl A, Dreyer M, Sebald W. (2000) Ein Designerprotein eröffnet neue Wege zur Asthmatherapie. Nachr. Chemie, 48, 761-763. REVIEW

Duschl A, Sebald W. (2000) Rekombinante Proteine als Medikamente. In: Gen-Medizin - Eine Bestandsaufnahme, W. Ehret, W. Michaelis, A. Raem Eds., Springer Verlag, Berlin, p. 363-376. REVIEW

Reinemer P, Sebald W, Duschl A. (2000) The Interleukin-4-Receptor: From Recognition Mechanism to Pharmacological Target Structure. Angew. Chem Int. Ed. 39, 2835-2846. REVIEW

Feng N, Lugli SM, Gauchat JF, Graber P, Schlagenhauf E, Schnarr B, Wiederkehr- Adam M, Duschl A, Heim M, Lutz RA, Moser R. (1998) The interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13 receptor of human synovial fibroblasts: Overexpression of non-signaling IL-13 receptor a2. Lab. Invest., 78, 591-602

Grunewald SM, Werthmann A, Schnarr B, Klein CE, Bröcker EB, Mohrs M, Brombacher F, Sebald W , Duschl A. (1998) Inhibition of the IL-4/IL-13 receptor system by a murine IL-4 mutant protein (QY) prevents the humoral immune response to allergen and the development of type I allergy in vivo. J. Immunol., 160, 4004-4009

Grunewald SM, Bröcker EB, Sebald W, Duschl A. (1998) Cytokine antagonists and allergy. Eur. Cytokine Netw. 9, 92-94. REVIEW

Goebeler M, Schnarr B, Toksoy A, Kunz M, Bröcker EB, Duschl A, Gillitzer R. (1997) Interleukin-13 selectively induces monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 synthesis and secretion by human endothelial cells. Involvement of IL-4Ra and Stat6 phosphorylation. Immunology, 91, 450-457

Andersson A, Grunewald SM, Duschl A, Fischer A, DiSanto JP. (1997) Murine macrophage development and function in the absence of gc: defining receptor complexes responsible for IL-4 and IL-13 signaling. Eur. J. Immunol., 27, 1762-1768

Schnarr B, Ezernieks J, Sebald W, Duschl A. (1997) IL-4 receptor complexes containing or lacking the gc chain are inhibited by an overlapping set of antagonistic IL-4 mutants. Int. Immunol., 9, 861-868

Grunewald SM, Kunzmann S, Schnarr B, Ezernieks J, Sebald W, Duschl A. (1997) A novel murine interleukin-4 antagonistic protein completely inhibits IL-4 induced cell proliferation, differentiation, and signal transduction. J. Biol. Chem., 272, 1480-1483

Grunewald SM, Duschl A. (1997) Cytokinhemmstoffe als neues Therapiekonzept bei Soforttypallergien. BIOspektrum 3 (6), 32-34. REVIEW

Quentmeier H, Duschl A, Hu ZB, Schnarr B, Zaborski M, Drexler HG. (1996) Mutz-3, a monocytic model cell line for interleukin-4 and lipopolysaccaride studies. Immunology, 89, 606-612

Ezernieks J, Schnarr B, Metz K, Duschl A. (1996) The human IgE germline promoter is regulated by Interleukin-4, Interleukin-13, Interferon-a and Interferon-g via a Interferon-g activated site and its flanking regions. Eur. J. Biochem., 240, 667-673

Metz K, Ezernieks J, Sebald W, Duschl A. (1996) Interleukin-4 upregulates the heat shock protein Hsp90a and enhances transcription of a reporter gene coupled to a single heat shock element. FEBS Lett., 385, 25-28

Duschl A, Wang Y, Letzelter F, Sebald W. (1996) Design of cytokine antagonists based on the mechanism of receptor activation. Proceedings of the Siebold Memorial International Medical Symposium, 74-91. REVIEW

Duschl A, Sebald W. (1996) Transmembrane and intracellular signaling by Interleukin-4: Receptor dimerization and beyond. Eur. Cytokine Netw. 7, 37-49. REVIEW

Duschl A. (1995) An antagonistic mutant of interleukin-4 fails to recruit into the receptor complex. Characterization by specific crosslinking. Eur. J. Biochem. 228, 305-310

Duschl A, Müller T, Sebald W. (1995) Antagonistic mutant proteins of interleukin-4. Behring Inst. Mitteil. 96, 87-94. REVIEW

Smerz-Bertling C, Duschl A. (1995) Both interleukin 4 and interleukin 13 induce tyrosine phosphorylation of the 140 kDa subunit of the interleukin 4 receptor. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 966-970

Duschl A, Jahn U, Bertling C, Sebald W. (1992) A comparison of assays for the response of primary human T-cells upon stimulation with interleukin 2, interleukin 4 and interleukin 7. Eur. Cytokine Netw. 3, 97-102

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