Projekte

Floral scent and deceptive pollination in Aristolochia

Interactions between plants and other organisms represent one of the most fascinating topics in ecology and evolutionary biology, among which pollination of angiosperms by animals consistently evokes particular scientific interest. During the last decades many studies considerably contributed to our mechanistic understanding of the diversity in plant-pollinator interactions. However, our knowledge about the specific nature of many pollination systems, especially those between deceptive plants and their dipteran pollinators, is still limited due to: a) the dipteran species richness, b) their challenging identification and taxonomy, c) the rudimentarily knowledge about the ecology of most fly species, and d) the virtually unlimited number of potential resources / models that could be imitated. West Mediterranean Aristolochia species are known to be pollinated by flies. However, this is only true for the family- or genus- but mostly not for the species-level with the resource imitated / mimicked unknown for most of the species. These gaps of knowledge will be closed by applying a comparative and multidisciplinary approach aiming at the identification of pollinator taxa, the mechanisms of pollinator attraction, and the deceptive strategies of several Aristolochia species. The nature and specificity of floral scents is of particular interest. We hypothesize that a) floral scents and pollinators (species, sexes) differ among closely related Aristolochia species, b) plants attract pollinators from the potentially available pollinator fauna with high specificity (species, sex), and c) different Aristolochia species evolved different pollination strategies and exploit different behaviors of their pollinators. The project combines integrative taxonomy with ecological and chemo-ecological methods. Pollinators will be identified morphologically and by applying latest molecular high-throughput methods. Flower scent composition will be determined by chemical-analytical methods, while chemical-electroantennographic approaches will serve to identify biologically active compounds. Bioassays with fly pollinators will reveal the attractiveness of floral scent mixtures and individual compounds thereof. Chemical-analytical and -electrophysiological analyses with (potential) models imitated, together with bioassays, will elucidate the deceptive strategy of the plants. Hence this project will provide novel insights into the pollination ecology and diversity in deceptive pollination systems, like the new one between food steeling Chloropidae and Aristolochia rotundathat we recently discovered (kleptomyiophily). Additionally, the study will contribute to a better general understanding of interactions between deceptive angiosperm flowers and pollinators. We expect that our results will foster even more research in this and adjacent fields. Our results will also be of considerable interest for the public, as our previous studies in A. rotunda were.

 

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PhD student: MSc Thomas Rupp

In collaboration with Professor Prof. Dr. Stefan Wanke, Dr. Birgit Oelschlägel, Prof. Dr. Christoph Neinhuis

 

 

Oelschlägel, B; von Tschirnhaus, M; Nuss, M; Nikolić, T; Wanke, S; Dötterl, S; Neinhuis, C: Spatio-temporal patterns in pollination of deceptive Aristolochia rotunda L. (Aristolochiaceae). Plant Biology, 18, 928–937 (2016)

Oelschlägel, B; Nuss, M; von Tschirnhaus, M; Pätzold, C; Neinhuis, C; Dötterl, S; Wanke, S: The betrayed thief - the extraordinary strategy of Aristolochia rotunda to deceive its pollinators. New Phytologist, 206, 342-351 (2015)

Local pollinator adaptation in deceptive Arum maculatum  

Barrierefreiheit: Kurzbeschreibung des BildesVisual and olfactory (scent) floral cues are means by which plants communicate with their animal pollinators and are thus essential in plant-pollinator interactions. The relative importance of these cues varies among systems, but specialized pollination systems are typically mediated by floral scents. Although several thousand scent compounds have been described so far, little is known about the individual compounds responsible for pollinator attraction. Floral scents are known to vary within species among populations, but there are still large gaps in our knowledge about the evolutionary forces driving this variability, which may be due to genetic drift and/or local selective adaptation in response to a geographically variable pollinator climate. 

     © Eva Gfrerer

The deceptive Lords and Ladies, Arum maculatum, with its moth fly pollinators is our model system to identify the mechanisms of pollinator attraction and test whether variability in floral scent is adaptive. This plant attracts and lures specifically two psychodid moth flies (Psychoda phalaenoides and Psycha grisescens) that both oviposit on cow and horse dung, but have different olfactory preferences. In Europe, there is a strong geographical pattern of pollinator climate in that populations from north vs. south of the Alps are mainly pollinated by P. phalaenoides and P. grisescens, respectively, although both insect species occur in either region. Based on recent genetic reports, this north-south pattern matches a phylogeographic subdivision of A. maculatumin DNA fingerprints (AFLPs) but is not reflected in the mitochondrial DNA of the moth flies. Although the inflorescence scent of A. maculatum has been documented to vary intraspecifically, this has never been studied at a population level in relation to the north-south genetic/pollinator pattern. It is thus still unknown whether (1) local populations of A. maculatum from north vs. south of the Alps have adaptively diverged in scent traits to attract the most abundant and/or efficient regional pollinators; or (2) cis-trans Alpine variation in pollinator climate merely reflects local insect abundance rather than differences in scent traits.

We use a novel combination of ecological, chemical-ecological and genomic methods, and propose to study local adaptation in floral scents. For the first time, we take the opportunity to distinguish between different molecular signatures of neutral variation versus adaptive change in floral scents. Specifically, we will identify the compounds responsible for pollinator attraction in A. maculatum and study the evolutionary forces driving inter-population variability in floral scents. Obtained data will contribute to our understanding of the evolution of intraspecific variability in floral scents as a category of traits implicated in plant reproductive isolation and speciation.  

 

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PhD students: Mag. Eva Gfrerer, MSc Danae Laina 

In collaboration with Prof. Dr. Peter ComesDr. Anja Hörger, Dr. Marc GibernauDr. Till Tolasch

 

 

Marotz-Clausen, G; Jürschik, S; Fuchs, R; Schäffler, I; Sulzer, P; Gibernau, M; Dötterl, S: Incomplete synchrony of inflorescence scent and temperature patterns in Arum maculatum L. (Araceae). Phytochemistry, 154, 77-84 (2018)

Chemical ecology of deceptive pollination in Ceropegia  

Barrierefreiheit: Kurzbeschreibung des Bildes

Post Doc: Dr. Annemarie Heiduk

Main collaboration partners: Dr. Irina Brake, Prof. Dr. Steven JohnsonProf. Dr. Sigrid Liede SchumannDr. Ulrich MeveDr. Adam Shuttleworth, Prof. Dr. Michael v. Tschirnhaus 

 

 

Heiduk, A; Brake, I; v. Tschirnhaus, M; Haenni, JP; Miller, R; Hash, J; Prieto-Benítez, S; Jürgens, A; Johnson, SD; Schulz, S; Liede-Schumann, S; Meve, U; Dötterl, S:  Floral scent and pollinators of Ceropegiatrap flower. Flora, 232, 169-182 (2017)

Meve, U; Heiduk, A; Liede-Schumann, S: Origin and early evolution of Ceropegieae (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae), Systematics and Biodiversity, 15, 143-155 (2017)

Ollerton, J; Dötterl, S; Ghorpadé, K; Heiduk, A; Liede-Schumann, S; Masinde, S; Meve, U; Peter, CI; Prieto-Benítez, P; Punekar, S; Thulin, M; Whittington, A: Diversity of Diptera families that pollinate Ceropegia(Apocynaceae) trap flowers: an update in light of new data and phylogenetic analyses. Flora, 234, 233-244 (2017)

Heiduk, A; Brake, I; von Tschirnhaus, M; Göhl, M; Jürgens, A; Johnson, SD; Meve, U; Dötterl, S: Ceropegia sandersonii mimics attacked honey bees to attract kleptoparasitic flies for pollination. Current Biology, 26, 2787–2793 (2016)

Heiduk, A; Kong, H; Brake, I; von Tschirnhaus, M; Tolasch, T; Tröger, AG; Wittenberg, E; Francke, W; Meve, U; Dötterl, S: 2015. Deceptive Ceropegia dolichophyllafools its kleptoparasitic fly pollinators with exceptional floral scent. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 3:66. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2015.00066 (2015)

Heiduk, A; Brake, I; Tolasch, T; Frank, J; Jürgens, A; Meve, U; Dötterl, S: Scent chemistry and pollinator attraction in the deceptive trap flowers of Ceropegia dolichophylla, South African Journal of Botany, 76, 762-769 (2010) 

Chemical ecology of pollination in Cyclocephalini beetle-plant interactions  

Main collaboration partners: Mag. Florian EtlProf. Dr. Gerhard GottsbergerDr. Artur MaiaProf. Dr. Clemens SchlindweinProf. Dr. Jürg SchönenbergerProf. Dr. Stefan Schulz   

 

 

Correction to: Maia, ACD; Grimm, C; Schubert, M; Etl, F; Gomes Gonçalves, E; Navarro, DMAF; Schulz, S; Dötterl, S:  Novel floral scent compounds from night-blooming Araceae pollinated by cyclocephaline scarabs (Melolonthidae, Cyclocephalini). Journal of Chemical Ecology (In Press) 

Maia, ACD; Grimm, C; Schubert, M; Etl, F; Gomes Gonçalves, E; Navarro, DMAF; Schulz, S; Dötterl, S:  Novel floral scent compounds from night-blooming Araceae pollinated by cyclocephaline scarabs (Melolonthidae, Cyclocephalini). Journal of Chemical Ecology (In Press) 

Gonçalves-Souza, P; Schlindwein, C; Dötterl, S; Paiva, EAS: Unveiling the osmophores of Philodendron adamantinum(Araceae) as a means to understanding interactions with pollinators. Annals of Botany, 119, 533-543 (2017)

Pereira, J; Schlindwein, C; Antonini, Y; Maia, ACD; Dötterl, S; Martins, C; Navarro, DMAF; Oliveira, R:  Philodendron adamantinum (Araceae) lures its single cyclocephaline scarab pollinator with specific dominant floral scent volatiles. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 111, 679-691 (2014)

Gottsberger, G; Silberbauer-Gottsberger, I; Dötterl, S: Pollination and floral scent differentiation in species of the Philodendron bipinnatifidumcomplex (Araceae), Plant Systematics and Evolution, 299, 793–809 (2013)

Maia, ACD; Gibernau, M; Dötterl, S; Navarro, DMAF; Seifert, K; Müller, T; Schlindwein, C: The floral scent of Taccarum ulei(Araceae): attraction of scarab beetle pollinators to an unusual aliphatic acyloin, Phytochemistry, 93, 71-78 (2013)Dötterl, S; David, A; Boland, W; Silberbauer-Gottsberger, I; Gottsberger, G: Evidence for behavioral attractiveness of methoxylated aromatics in a dynastid scarab beetle-pollinated Araceae, Journal of Chemical Ecology, 38, 1539–1543 (2012)

Gottsberger, G; Silberbauer-Gottsberger, I; Seymour, RS; Dötterl, S: Pollination ecology of Magnolia ovata may explain the overall large flower size of the genus, Flora, 207, 107-118 (2012)

Maia, ACD; Dötterl, S; Kaiser, R; Silberbauer-Gottsberger, I; Teichert, H; Gibernau, M; Navarro, DMAF; Schlindwein, C; Gottsberger, G: The key role of 4-methyl-5-vinylthiazole in the attraction of scarab beetle pollinators: a unique olfactory floral signal shared by Annonaceae and Araceae, Journal of Chemical Ecology, 38, 1072-1080 (2012) 

Frequency dependent selection in the deceptive orchid Cypripedium calceolus L.

Populations of deceptive plants are considered to be more variable than populations of rewarding species in traits associated with pollinator attraction. This variability in traits increases the difficulty for pollinators to recognize and avoid deceptive plants. Hence, rare phenotypes are thought to have a higher fitness. The evolutionary process by which the fitness of a phenotype depends on its frequency relative to other phenotypes in a given population, is called frequency dependent selection. In rewarding plants, positive frequency dependent selection is expected, in deceptive plants, negative frequency dependent selection. Floral scent is a key mediator in plant–pollinator interactions. It is known to vary not only among plant species, but also within species among and within populations. It is still unknown, whether such variability is the result of divergent selective pressures, exerted by pollinators or of other scenarios. A prominent deceptive plant is Cypripedium calceolus L., the only lady's-slipper orchid species in Europe. Its successful pollination depends on bees trapped in the labellum and escaping the slippery cavern via an exit of similar height as the insect itself, thereby passing the stigma and the anthers to first depositing and second collecting pollen.

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Bee leaving the posterior exit of a Cypripedium calceolus flower with pollen smear on its back.It squeezes through the narrow posterior exit and gets a load of pollen attached.(Photo: Stefan Dötterl)

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                              Cypripedium calceolus (Photo: Robin Guilhot)

 

PhD student: Mag., MSc Herbert Braunschmid

 

Braunschmid, H; Mükisch, B; Rupp, T; Schäffler, I; Zito, P; Birtele, D; Dötterl, S: Interpopulation variation in pollinators and floral scent of the lady´s-slipper orchid Cypripedium calceolus L. Arthropod-Plant Interactions, 11, 363–379 (2017)

Developing a baiting system for the Western corn rootworm based on floral scent components of the Styrian oil pumpkin

The Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is one of the most important maize pests in the Northern hemisphere. In Austria, it causes damage in all regions, where maize is an important crop. Recent and ongoing studies in Austria focus mostly on the damage and pest control of larvae, but not on adults. The control of adults by insecticide spraying is only possible with stilted tractors due to the height of the plants during the main flight season in July and August, and is therefore complex and expensive. Also, cross-farm spraying is important for the effectiveness of the treatment, as the “import” from adjacent maize areas can only effectively be reduced by spreading as much maize as possible. The development of new, less complex methods for beetle control is therefore an important step towards controlling the pest. In Austria we have the unique situation that maize is often alternately cultivated with the Styrian oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca), and thus, both crops grow in close vicinity. Female and male adult WMB are strongly attracted to flowers of the Styrian oil pumpkin and a study in 2011 and 2012 has demonstrated that Diabrotica lays, when compared to maize fields, an average of 30 % of the eggs in neighbouring oil pumpkin fields (Foltin & Robier 2014). By catching the beetles with suitable kairomone traps, the effectiveness of crop rotation can be increased. We will take advantage of the setting in Austria and develop an environmentally friendly pest management system based on flower volatiles of the Styrian oil pumpkin. We will identify those flower volatiles of the oil pumpkin that are responsible for attraction of WMB, and use these volatiles to develop suitable bait and trapping systems. This new control strategy will help farmers to protect their fields against this pest already in the adult stage. To reach our aim we will use a multidisciplinary approach, including electrophysiology, chemical analysis, and behavioral assays in the laboratory and field. This pest management system will be environmentally friendly and drastically reduce the amount of insecticides needed to control WMB in Austria. It will be cost effective and easy to be used by the farmers because of low technical requirements. After having proven the efficiency of our newly developed system, we aim to apply for a patent and register our development as a new plant protection product. 

In collaboration with Mag. Katharina Wechselberger, Dr. Zsolt Zsolt Kárpáti, ISCA

Barrierefreiheit: Kurzbeschreibung des Bildes

Chemical ecology of pollination in nocturnal bee-plant interactions  

Main collaboration partners: Prof. Dr. Isabel Alves dos SantosProf. Dr. Clemens Schlindwein

 

 

Krug, C; Cordeiro, C; Schäffler, I; Inês Silva, C; Oliveira, R; Schlindwein, C; Dötterl, S; Alves-dos-Santos, I: Nocturnal bee pollinators are attracted to guarana flowers by their scents. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9:1072. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.01072 (2018)

Siqueira, E; Oliveira, R; Dötterl, S; Cordeiro, GD; Alves-dos-Santos, I; Mota, T; Schlindwein, C:  Pollination of Machaerium opacum(Fabaceae) by nocturnal and diurnal bees. Arthropod-Plant Interactions, 12, 633–645 (2018)

Cordeiro, GD; Pinheiro, M; Dötterl, S; Alves-dos-Santos, I: Pollination of Campomanesia phaea (Myrtaceae) by night-active bees: a new nocturnal pollination system mediated by floral scent. Plant Biology, 19, 132-139 (2017)

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Host-plant finding and recognition in oligolectic bees

Main collaboration partners: Prof. Dr. Manfred Ayasse , Prof. Dr. Hannah Burger, Dr. Paulo Milet-Pinheiro

 

 

Brandt, K; Dötterl, S; Francke, W; Ayasse, M; Milet-Pinheiro, P: Flower visitors of Campanula: are oligoleges more sensitive to host-specific floral scents than polyleges? Journal of Chemical Ecology, 43, 4-12 (2017)

Milet-Pinheiro, P; Herz, K; Dötterl, S; Ayasse, M: Host choice in a bivoltine bee: how sensory constraints shape innate foraging behaviors. BMC Ecology, 16:20 (2016)

Milet-Pinheiro, P; Ayasse, M; Dötterl, S: Visual and olfactory floral cues of Campanula (Campanulaceae) and their significance for host recognition by an oligolectic bee pollinator. PLOS ONE 10(6): e0128577. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0128577 (2015)

Schäffler, I; Steiner, KE; Haid, M; van Berkel, SS; Gerlach, G; Johnson, SD; Wessjohann, L; Dötterl, S: Diacetin, a reliable cue and private communication channel in a specialized pollination system. Scientific Reports 5, 12779: doi:10.1038/srep12779 (2015)

Carvalho, AT; Dötterl, S; Schlindwein, C:  An aromatic volatile attracts oligolectic bee pollinators in an interdependent bee-plant relationship. Journal of Chemical Ecology,40, 1126-1134 (2014)

Burger, H; Ayasse, M; Dötterl, S; Kreissl, S; Galizia, CG: Perception of floral volatiles involved in host-plant finding behaviour: comparison of a bee specialist and generalist, Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 199, 751-761 (2013)Milet-Pinheiro, P; Ayasse, M; Dobson, HEM; Schlindwein, C; Francke, W: Dötterl, S: The chemical basis of host-plant recognition in a specialized pollinator, Journal of Chemcal Ecology, 39, 1347-1360 (2013)

Dötterl, S: Wie Blumen sprechen: das Ölblume-Ölbiene-Bestäubungssystem, In: Die Vielfalt des Lebens edited by E. Beck. Wiley-VHC Verlag & Co. KGaA. (2013)

Burger, H; Dötterl, S; Häberlein, CM; Schulz, S; Ayasse, M: An arthropod deterrent attracts specialised bees to their host plants, Oecologia, 168, 727–736 (2012)

Milet-Pinheiro, P; Ayasse, M; Schlindwein, C; Dobson, HEM; Dötterl, S: Host location by visual and olfactory floral cues in an oligolectic bee: innate and learned behavior, Behavioral Ecology, 23, 531-538 (2012)

Schäffler, I; Balao, F; Dötterl, S: Floral and vegetative cues in oil and non-oil secreting Lysimachiaspecies, Annals of Botany, 110, 125-138 (2012)

Dötterl, S; Milchreit, K; Schäffler, I: Behavioural plasticity and sex differences in host finding of a specialized bee species, Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 197, 1119-1126 (2011)

Schäffler, I; Dötterl, S: A day in the life of an oil bee: Phenology, nesting & foraging behavior, Apidologie, 42, 409-424 (2011)

Steiner, KE; Kaiser, R; Dötterl, S: Strong phylogenetic effects on floral scent variation of oil-secreting orchids in South Africa, American Journal of Botany, 98, 1663-1679 (2011)Burger, H; Ayasse, M; Häberlein, CM; Schulz, S; Dötterl, S: Echium and Pontechium specific floral cues for host-plant recognition by the oligolectic bee Hoplitis adunca, South African Journal of Botany, 76, 788-795 (2010)

Burger, H; Dötterl, S; Ayasse, M: Host-plant finding and recognition by visual and olfactory floral cues in an oligolectic bee, Functional Ecology, 24, 1234-1240 (2010)

Dötterl, S; Vereecken, NJ: The chemical ecology and evolution of bee-flower interactions: a review and perspectives, Canadian Journal of Zoology, 88, 668-697 (2010)

Burger, H;Dötterl, S; Ayasse, M: Importance of olfactory and visual cues of Echium for host-plant finding of the oligolectic bee Osmia adunca (Megachilidae)., Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Allgemeine und Angewandte Entomologie, 16, 163-166 (2008)

Dötterl, S: Antennal responses of an oligolectic bee and its cleptoparasite to plant volatiles, Plant Signaling & Behavior , 3(5), 296-297 (2008)

Dötterl, S; Schäffler, I: Flower scent of floral-oil producing Lysimachia punctata as cue for the oil-bee Macropis fulvipes, Journal of Chemical Ecology, 33, 441-445 (2007) 

Dötterl, S; Füssel, Ulrike; Jürgens, A; Aas, G: 1,4-Dimethoxybenzene, a floral scent compound in willows that attracts an oligolectic bee, Journal of Chemical Ecology, 31(12), 2993-2998 (2005) 

 

Barrierefreiheit: Kurzbeschreibung des Bildes

 

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